Lorna Smith Benjamin

The latest in SASB and IRT

Assessment with SASB Intrex Questionnaires


Sample questionnaires and answer sheets

Former links to Questionnaires have been removed because of misuse.

It is forbidden to download and use SASB Intrex questionnaires without first agreeing to terms of use and ordering processing software from the University of Utah

Samples are available to qualified professionals or to professionals in training under supervision of qualified professionals.

If you are a health care professional interested in using SASB, please contact

Dennis Laros at


and the dimensional ratings exercises used to validate the structure of their content



 Note:  I hope to find time soon to put the questions and answer forms  in a shell and create a secure channel so that raters can take the questionnaires on line and providers no longer need to type the answers into the proper format for processing.

What does output from SASB Intrex questionnaires look like?

According to SASB and IRT personality must be contextualized. We are not the same in every relationship and should not be. Patients choose their significant others;  rate step parents or other non traditional caregivers if appropriate to their history. Clinicians can review these results with patients and the copy processes are easy to see at the level of individuals as are the predictive principles.

Case 100 illustrates SASB reports after applying the automatic grapher

Case 100 GeneralReport

Case 100 SummaryReport

There also are files that are formatted to make it easy to read this information into Excel or SPSS or BMDP for research analyses

What does copy process look like in SASB research studies?


Acknowledgments for graphs of copy process on this page

Software also provides sequential analyses, using Markov chain analysis described by Isaacson.  References for and illustrations of uses of this powerful method are in:

Benjamin, L.S. (1986). Operational definition and measurement of dynamics shown in the stream of free associations. Psychiatry, Journal for the Study of Biological and Social Processes, 49, 104-129


Benjamin, L.S. (1977) Structural analysis of a family in therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45,391-406.

doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.45.3.391

One interesting variation on standard ways of looking at one step probabilities also is shown at the same link. One file includes figures comparing mother to child sequences for a depressed mother to a matched control  pair. The  data are from a data base collected by Donna Gelfand and Doug Teti, supported by NIMH.

3 D figure of mother to child interactions

Interactions between this depressed mother and her child centered on the vertical (interdependence) axis of the SASB model

Results show at an individual level what is seen at a group level.  Exchanges for the depressed pair center on the vertical axis of the SASB model, whereas changes for the normal pair are in the normal region of friendly differentiation and friendly enmeshment. Such orderliness a the N = 1 level is typical of SASB and shows what can be seen in the clinic if you know what to look for  (here: lots of concern about control/submit and separation for the depressed pair; more warm collaboration in problem solving for the normal pair.

I emphasize this here because few SASB users have taken advantage of the powerful sequential analyses provide by the SASB coding software.  Elizabeth Skowron is an exception. Her studies of mother child interactions comparing mothers identified by the state as maltreaters to controls are monumental in importance to the study of the development of psychopathology as a result of child maltreatment. Skowron’s studies are cited in the IRT section of this web site because they are strongly supportive of the natural biological perspective on development of psychopathology (Benjamin, draft chapter 3).

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: